Religion is a holy text plus interpretations plus local culture plus local condition " As'as Abu Khalil cited in Habib The anthropologists' discovery that different societies perceive homosexual behaviours differently, brought some of them to state that homosexuality is a "cultural construct" influenced by local conceptions of gender, instead of a "sexual identity" as stated by essentialists. In this paper I will try to reconcile constructivist and essentialist approaches in order to explore the hidden phenomenon of female homosexuality in Islamic countries, which has been largely denied within literature about Muslim women. At first I will use a constructivist approach to understand Islamic negative attitude toward homosexuality, principally due to the binary notion of sexuality emphasized in the Qua'ran. Then, referring to the common conception of femininity, I will try to demonstrate how the apparent inexistence of lesbians in Muslim countries can be related with the prevalent patriarchal structure of such societies, where the status of the woman is mainly defined by her role as wife and mother. In the second chapter I will refer to Habib's research to regain some essentialist assumptions and demonstrate that homosexual identities were existing before their social definition, categorization and historical problematization.
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One Muslim's fight to marry Islam with homosexuality
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Furthermore, the perception that there are no gay Muslims or that gay and lesbian Muslims have not shaped the history of Islam through literature, the arts, military campaigns, astronomy and other social disciplines, shows the bankruptcy of thinking that makes up the view that being gay and Muslim are two separate and incompatible things. Moreover, within Pakistan and India there has been a history of trans-Muslim communities , many of whom are of Muslim heritage and can only find work in the sex industry. They have also shaped the history of music, poetry and the arts in Islamic Mughal times , such that many of the artistic pictures of the time depict men and women in passionate clinches and sometimes clad with nothing but the embraces of many and with courtesans watching them as they made love. This homo-erotic and deeply sexualised culture was embedded in Islamic India in the last years before its disintegration by the East India Tea Company and the British. This was the 18th and 19th century Islam from which the very country of Pakistan was shaped, and from where the majority of the Muslims originate in the UK.
The statement comes amid concerns over growing persecution of the LGBT community in the Muslim-majority country, where sodomy and other same-sex acts are outlawed. Hundreds of people marched through the streets of Kuala Lumpur on Saturday calling for greater women's rights, media reported. The rally's organisers, led by women's rights groups, said the focus on the LGBT community was a distraction from key demands, such as calls for a dignified minimum wage, a ban on child marriage, and an end to patriarchy and violence based on gender and sexual orientation. The attack on the LGBT community is the latest in a series of incidents in the past few months that civil rights groups say illustrate growing hostility against gay and transgender people in Malaysia.